Oklahoma (/ˌoʊkləˈhoʊmə/ (listen); Cherokee: ᎣᎦᎳᎰᎹ, ogalahoma; Choctaw: Oklahumma) is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by the state of Texas on the south and west, Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the 50 United States. The state’s name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning “red people”. It is also known informally by its nickname, “The Sooner State”, in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans (or colloquially, “Okies”), and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.
Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles (181,040 km), with 68,595 square miles (177,660 km) of land and 1,304 square miles (3,380 km) of water. It lies partly in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, and on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen, a failed continental rift. The geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River.
The Oklahoma panhandle’s Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border. The Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles (3.4 km) to 2.2 miles (3.5 km) east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819. It was then set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, and the actual 103rd meridian was approximately 2.2 miles (3.5 km) to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error. The placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian.
Cimarron County in Oklahoma’s panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, and Kansas.
The United States Census Bureau estimates Oklahoma’s population was 3,943,079 on July 1, 2018, a 5.11% increase since the 2010 United States Census.
At the 2010 Census, 68.7% of the population was non-Hispanic white, down from 88% in 1970, 7.3% non-Hispanic Black or African American, 8.2% non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.7% non-Hispanic Asian, 0.1% non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 5.1% of two or more races (non-Hispanic). 8.9% of Oklahoma’s population was of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (they may be of any race).
As of 2011, 47.3% of Oklahoma’s population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.
As of 2005 Oklahoma’s estimated ancestral makeup was 14.5% German, 13.1% American, 11.8% Irish, 9.6% English, 8.1% African American, and 11.4% Native American (including 7.9% Cherokee) though the percentage of people claiming American Indian as their only race was 8.1%. Most people from Oklahoma who self-identify as having American ancestry are of overwhelmingly English ancestry with significant amounts of Scottish and Welsh inflection as well.
The state had the second-highest number of Native Americans in 2002, estimated at 395,219, as well as the second-highest percentage among all states.
In 2011, U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey data from 2005 to 2009 indicated about 5% of Oklahoma’s residents were born outside the United States. This is lower than the national figure (about 12.5% of U.S. residents were foreign-born).
The center of population of Oklahoma is in Lincoln County near the town of Sparks.
The state’s 2006 per capita personal income ranked 37th at $32,210, though it has the third-fastest-growing per capita income in the nation and ranks consistently among the lowest states in cost of living index. The Oklahoma City suburb Nichols Hills is first on Oklahoma locations by per capita income at $73,661, though Tulsa County holds the highest average. In 2011, 7.0% of Oklahomans were under the age of 5, 24.7% under 18, and 13.7% were 65 or older. Females made up 50.5% of the population.
The state is in the U.S. Census’ Southern region. According to the 2010 United States Census, Oklahoma is the 28th-most populous state with 3,751,616 inhabitants but the 19th-largest by land area spanning 68,594.92 square miles (177,660.0 km) of land. Oklahoma is divided into 77 counties and contains 597 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities and towns.
In Oklahoma, cities are all those incorporated communities which are 1,000 or more in population and are incorporated as cities. Towns are limited to town board type of municipal government. Cities may choose among aldermanic, mayoral, council-manager, and home-rule charter types of government. Cities may also petition to incorporate as towns.
The English language has been official in the state of Oklahoma since 2010. The variety of North American English spoken is called Oklahoma English, and this dialect is quite diverse with its uneven blending of features of North Midland, South Midland, and Southern dialects. In 2000, 2,977,187 Oklahomans—92.6% of the resident population five years or older—spoke only English at home, a decrease from 95% in 1990. 238,732 Oklahoma residents reported speaking a language other than English in the 2000 census, about 7.4% of the state’s population. Spanish is the second-most commonly spoken language in the state, with 141,060 speakers counted in 2000. The two most commonly spoken native North American languages are Cherokee and Choctaw with 10,000 Cherokee speakers living within the Cherokee Nation tribal jurisdiction area of eastern Oklahoma, and another 10,000 Choctaw speakers living in the Choctaw Nation directly south of the Cherokees. Cherokee is an official language in the Cherokee Nation tribal jurisdiction area and in the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.
German has 13,444 speakers representing about 0.4% of the state’s population, and Vietnamese is spoken by 11,330 people, or about 0.4% of the population, many of whom live in the Asia District of Oklahoma City. Other languages include French with 8,258 speakers (0.3%), Chinese with 6,413 (0.2%), Korean with 3,948 (0.1%), Arabic with 3,265 (0.1%), other Asian languages with 3,134 (0.1%), Tagalog with 2,888 (0.1%), Japanese with 2,546 (0.1%), and African languages with 2,546 (0.1%). In addition to Cherokee, more than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, second only to California. However, only Cherokee exhibits language vitality at present.
Oklahoma is part of a geographical region characterized by conservative and Evangelical Christianity known as the “Bible Belt”. Spanning the southern and eastern parts of the United States, the area is known for politically and socially conservative views, with the Republican Party having the greater number of voters registered between the two parties. Tulsa, the state’s second-largest city, home to Oral Roberts University, is sometimes called the “buckle of the Bible Belt”.
According to the Pew Research Center, the majority of Oklahoma’s religious adherents are Christian, accounting for about 80 percent of the population. The percentage of Oklahomans affiliated with Catholicism is half of the national average, while the percentage affiliated with Evangelical Protestantism is more than twice the national average – tied with Arkansas for the largest percentage of any state.
In 2010, the state’s largest church memberships were in the Southern Baptist Convention (886,394 members), the United Methodist Church (282,347), the Roman Catholic Church (178,430), and the Assemblies of God (85,926) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (47,349). Other religions represented in the state include Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.
In 2000, there were about 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims, with 10 congregations to each group.
Oklahoma religious makeup:
Oklahoma has been described as “the world’s prison capital”, with 1,079 of every 100,000 residents imprisoned in 2018, the highest incarceration rate of any state, and by comparison, higher than the incarceration rates of any country in the world.
Zip Code Map
Oklahoma neighborhoods include: Ada, Adair, Afton, Agra, Alex, Aline, Allen, Altus, Altus Afb, Alva, Amber, Ames, Amorita, Anadarko, Antlers, Apache, Arapaho, Arcadia, Ardmore, Arkoma, Arnett, Asher, Atoka, Atwood, Balko, Barnsdall, Bartlesville, Beaver, Beggs, Bennington, Bernice, Bessie, Bethany, Bethel, Big Cabin, Billings, Binger, Bison, Bixby, Blackwell, Blair, Blanchard, Blanco, Bluejacket, Boise City, Bokchito, Bokoshe, Boley, Boswell, Boynton, Bradley, Braggs, Braman, Bristow, Broken Arrow, Broken Bow, Buffalo, Bunch, Burbank, Burlington, Burneyville, Burns Flat, Butler, Byars, Cache, Caddo, Calera, Calumet, Calvin, Cameron, Canadian, Caney, Canton, Canute, Carmen, Carnegie, Carney, Carrier, Carter, Cartwright, Cashion, Castle, Catoosa, Cement, Centrahoma, Chandler, Chattanooga, Checotah, Chelsea, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasha, Choctaw, Chouteau, Claremore, Clayton, Cleo Springs, Cleveland, Clinton, Coalgate, Colbert, Colcord, Coleman, Collinsville, Colony, Comanche, Commerce, Cookson, Copan, Cordell, Corn, Council Hill, Covington, Coweta, Coyle, Crescent, Cushing, Custer City, Cyril, Dacoma, Daisy, Dale, Davenport, Davidson, Davis, Deer Creek, Delaware, Del City, Depew, Devol, Dewey, Dill City, Douglas, Dover, Drummond, Drumright, Duke, Duncan, Durant, Dustin, Eagletown, Earlsboro, Edmond, Eldorado, Elgin, Elk City, Elmer, Elmore City, El Reno, Enid, Erick, Eucha, Eufaula, Fairfax, Fairland, Fairmont, Fairview, Fargo, Faxon, Felt, Fittstown, Fitzhugh, Fletcher, Forgan, Fort Cobb, Fort Gibson, Fort Supply, Fort Towson, Foss, Foster, Frederick, Freedom, Gage, Garber, Garvin, Gate, Geary, Geronimo, Glencoe, Glenpool, Goltry, Goodwell, Gore, Gotebo, Gould, Gracemont, Graham, Grandfield, Granite, Grant, Greenfield, Grove, Guthrie, Guymon, Hammon, Hanna, Hardesty, Harrah, Hartshorne, Haskell, Hastings, Haworth, Headrick, Healdton, Heavener, Helena, Hendrix, Hennepin, Hennessey, Henryetta, Hinton, Hitchcock, Hobart, Hodgen, Holdenville, Hollis, Hollister, Hominy, Honobia, Hooker, Howe, Hoyt, Hugo, Hulbert, Hunter, Hydro, Idabel, Indiahoma, Indianola, Inola, Isabella, Jay, Jenks, Jennings, Jet, Jones, Kansas, Kaw City, Kellyville, Kenefic, Kenton, Keota, Keyes, Kiamichi Christian Mission, Kiefer, Kingfisher, Kingston, Kinta, Kiowa, Konawa, Kremlin, Lahoma, Lamar, Lamont, Lane, Laverne, Lawton, Lebanon, Lenapah, Leon, Lexington, Lindsay, Loco, Locust Grove, Lone Grove, Lone Wolf, Longdale, Lookeba, Loveland, Loyal, Lucien, Luther, Macomb, Madill, Manchester, Mangum, Mannford, Mannsville, Maramec, Marietta, Marland, Marlow, Marshall, Maud, Maysville, McAlester, McCurtain, McLoud, Mead, Medford, Meeker, Meno, Meridian, Miami, Midwest City, Milburn, Mill Creek, Minco, Moore, Mooreland, Morris, Morrison, Mounds, Mountain Park, Mountain View, Muldrow, Mulhall, Muse, Muskogee, Mustang, Mutual, Nardin, Nash, Nashoba, Newalla, Newcastle, Newkirk, Nichols Hills, Ninnekah, Noble, Norman, North Miami, Nowata, Oaks, Ochelata, Okarche, Okeene, Okemah, Oklahoma City, Okmulgee, Oktaha, Olustee, Omega, Oologah, Orlando, Osage, Overbrook, Owasso, Paden, Paoli, Park Hill, Pauls Valley, Pawhuska, Pawnee, Peggs, Perkins, Perry, Picher, Piedmont, Pittsburg, Pocasset, Pocola, Ponca City, Pond Creek, Porter, Porum, Poteau, Prague, Proctor, Prue, Pryor, Purcell, Quapaw, Quinton, Ralston, Ramona, Randlett, Ratliff City, Red Oak, Red Rock, Reydon, Ringling, Ringwood, Ripley, Rocky, Roff, Roland, Roosevelt, Rose, Rosston, Rufe, Rush Springs, Ryan, Salina, Sallisaw, Sand Springs, Sapulpa, Sasakwa, Sawyer, Sayre, S Coffeyville, Seminole, Sentinel, Shady Point, Sharon, Shattuck, Shawnee, Shidler, Skiatook, Smithville, Snyder, Soper, Southard, Sparks, Spavinaw, Spencer, Spencerville, Sperry, Spiro, Springer, Stigler, Stillwater, Stilwell, Stonewall, Strang, Stratford, Stringtown, Stroud, Stuart, Sulphur, Sweetwater, Taft, Tahlequah, Talala, Talihina, Tecumseh, Temple, Terlton, Terral, Texhoma, Texola, Thackerville, Thomas, Tipton, Tishomingo, Tonkawa, Tryon, Tullahassee, Tulsa, Tupelo, Turpin, Tuskahoma, Tussy, Tuttle, Twin Oaks, Tyrone, Union City, Valliant, Verden, Vian, Vinita, Wagoner, Wakita, Walters, Wanette, Wann, Wapanucka, Wardville, Warner, Warr Acres, Washington, Watonga, Watson, Watts, Waukomis, Waurika, Wayne, Waynoka, Weatherford, Webbers Falls, Welch, Weleetka, Welling, Wellston, Westville, Wetumka, Wewoka, Whitefield, Whitesboro, Wilburton, Willow, Wilson, Wister, Woodward, Wright City, Wyandotte, Wynnewood, Wynona, Yale, Yukon
For more information, see Oklahoma wiki