Coalgate is a city in and the county seat of Coal County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 1,967 at the 2010 census, a 1.9 percent decrease from 2,005 in 2000. The town was founded in 1889 in the Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory as a coal mining camp named Liddle. The name changed to Coalgate on January 23, 1890.
Coalgate is located at 34°32′1″N 96°13′7″W / 34.53361°N 96.21861°W / 34.53361; -96.21861 (34.533662, -96.218727). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles (4.1 km), of which, 1.5 square miles (3.9 km) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km) of it (1.27%) is water. The main streams are the Clear Boggy and Muddy Boggy creeks.The Ouachita Mountains begin in the eastern part of the county. The western part is mostly open prairie. Generally the county lies within the Sandstone Hills physiographic region.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,005 people, 830 households, and 498 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,301.3 people per square mile (502.7/km²). There were 947 housing units at an average density of 614.6 per square mile (237.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 74.26% White, 0.80% African American, 16.26% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 1.25% from other races, and 6.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.89% of the population.
There were 25 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.9% were non-families. 37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 3.07.
In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $19,419, and the median income for a family was $26,367. Males had a median income of $23,438 versus $16,429 for females. The per capita income for the city was $10,572. About 21.7% of families and 28.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.5% of those under age 18 and 22.6% of those age 65 or over.